[an error occurred while processing this directive] EPON book - Table of Contents

Ethernet Passive Optical Networks

ISBN: 0071445625

Table of Contents

Part I:    Overview of Access Network Architectures

    1    Introduction
        1.1    Existing "Broadband" Solutions
            1.1.1    Digital Subscriber Line
            1.1.2    ADSL
            1.1.3    Community Antenna Television (CATV) networks
        1.2    Traffic Growth
        1.3    Evolution of the "First Mile"
            1.3.1    Fiber-to-the-Premises
            1.3.2    Next-Generation Subscriber Access Network
            1.3.3    PON is the Best Candidate
    2    Overview of PON Enabling Technologies
        2.1    Optical Fiber
            2.1.1    Light Propagation in Fiber
            2.1.2    Single-Mode Fiber vs. Multi-Mode Fiber
            2.1.3    Modal Dispersion
            2.1.4    Chromatic Dispersion
        2.2    Optical Splitters/Combiners
        2.3    PON Topologies
        2.4    Spectrum Sharing vs. Time Sharing
            2.4.1    WDMA PON
            2.4.2    TDMA PON
        2.5    Burst-Mode Transceivers
    3    Access Network Architectures based on TDMA PON
        3.1    ATM PON
        3.2    Ethernet PON
            3.2.1    Why Ethernet?
        3.3    GFP PON
        3.4    Comparison of BPON/GPON and EPON approaches
    4    Emergence of Ethernet PON
        4.1    EPON Standardization
            4.1.1    Scope of Work
            4.1.2    Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) Sublayer
            4.1.3    Point-to-Multipoint Protocol
            4.1.4    Extensions of the Existing Clauses
          Reconciliation Sublayer (RS)
          Physical Coding Sublayer (PCS)
          Physical Medium Attachment (PMA) Sublayer
        4.2    EPON Today: Promise and Challenges

Part II:    EPON Architecture

    5    EPON Overview
        5.1    Downstream Transmission
        5.2    Upstream Transmission
            5.2.1    Contention-Based vs. Guaranteed Media Access
            5.2.2    Centralized vs. Distributed Arbitration
        5.3    Multi-Point Control Protocol
            5.3.1    Bandwidth Assignment
          Pipelined Timeslot Assignment
          Decoupled Downstream and Upstream Timing
          MPCP Clock Synchronization
          Loop Timing
            5.3.2    Auto-Discovery
          Discovery Slot and Discovery Window
          Avoiding Persistent Collisions
            5.3.3    Round-Trip Time Measurement
          Timestamp Reference
    6    Logical Topology Emulation
        6.1    Point-to-Point Emulation (P2PE)
        6.2    Shared-Medium Emulation (SME)
        6.3    Combined P2PE and SME Mode
        6.4    Final Solution
            6.4.1    LLID Filtering Rules
        6.5    Preamble Format
            6.5.1    Start-of-LLID Delimiter
            6.5.2    Cyclic Redundancy Check
    7    Laser Control Function
        7.1    Data Detector Function
        7.2    Data Detector State Diagram
            7.2.1    WAIT_FOR_CODE_GROUP State
          IsIdle(..) Function
            7.2.2    DATA_ARRIVAL State
            7.2.3    TURN_LASER_ON State
            7.2.4    IDLE_ARRIVAL State
            7.2.5    TURN_LASER_OFF State
            7.2.6    TRANSMIT_CODE_GROUP State
        7.3    FIFO Buffer Size
    8    Multi-Point Control Protocol: A Formal Specification
        8.1    MPCP Frame Structure
            8.1.1    REPORT Control Frame
          Queue  n Report
          Report Bitmap
          Number of Queue Sets
            8.1.2    GATE Control Frame
          Number of Grants / Flags
          Grant  n Start Time
          Grant  n Length
          Sync Time
            8.1.3    REGISTER_REQ Control Frame
          Pending Grants
            8.1.4    REGISTER Control Frame
          Assigned Port
          Sync Time
          Echoed Pending Grants
            8.1.5    REGISTER_ACK Control Frame
          Echoed Assigned Port
          Echoed Sync Time
        8.2    Opcode-Independent Processes
            8.2.1    Control Parser
          WAIT FOR RECEIVE State
          PASS TO MAC CLIENT State
          PARSE OPCODE State
          PARSE TIMESTAMP State
          Timestamp Drift Tolerance
            8.2.2    ONU Control Multiplexer
          INIT State
          TRANSMIT READY State
          PARSE OPCODE State
          MARK TIMESTAMP State
          CHECK SIZE State
          TRANSMIT FRAME State
            8.2.3    Multi-Point Transmission Control
          INIT State
          WAIT PENDING State
          ENABLE State
          DISABLE State
            8.2.4    OLT Control Multiplexer
          INIT State
          WAIT FOR TRANSMIT State
          TRANSMIT READY State
          PARSE OPCODE State
          MARK TIMESTAMP State
          SEND FRAME State
        8.3    Gating Process
            8.3.1    Gate Generation at the OLT
          WAIT State
          WAIT FOR GATE State
          SEND GATE State
            8.3.2    Gate Reception at the ONU
          WAIT State
          WAIT FOR GATE State
          FLUSH State
          PARSE GATE State
          INCOMING GRANT state
            8.3.3    Grant Activation
          WAIT FOR GRANT State
          WAIT FOR START TIME State
          CHECK GATE TYPE State
          RANDOM DELAY State
          START TX State
          STOP TX State
          CHECK NEXT GRANT State
          HIDDEN GRANT State
          BACK TO BACK GRANT State
        8.4    Reporting Process
            8.4.1    Report Generation at an ONU
          WAIT State
          WAIT FOR REPORT State
          SEND REPORT State
            8.4.2    Report Reception at the OLT
          WAIT State
          RECEIVE REPORT State
        8.5    Discovery Process
            8.5.1    Discovery Gate Generation at the OLT
          IDLE State
          DISCOVERY WINDOW State
            8.5.2    Request Reception at the OLT
          IDLE State
          SIGNAL State
            8.5.3    Register Generation at the OLT
          WAIT FOR REGISTER State
          REGISTER State
            8.5.4    Final Registration at the OLT
          WAIT FOR GATE State
          VERIFY ACK State
          DISCOVERY NACK State
          REGISTERED State
          DEREGISTER State
            8.5.5    Discovery Process at the ONU
          WAIT State
          REGISTERING State
          REGISTER_REQUEST State
          DENIED State
          RETRY State
          REGISTER_RENDING State
          REGISTER_ACK State
          NACK State
          REGISTERED State
          LOCAL DEREGISTER State
          WATCHDOG TIMEOUT State
    9    Forward Error Correction
        9.1    Basics of FEC Coding
        9.2    Stream-based vs. Frame-based FEC
        9.3    FEC Frame Delineation
            9.3.1    Hamming Distance between FEC Delimiters
            9.3.2    Backward Compatibility
        9.4    Encoding Procedure
        9.5    Decoding Procedure

Part III:    System-Level Issues

    10    EPON Encryption Mechanism
        10.1    Development of a Security Mechanism
        10.2    EPON-Specific Encryption
            10.2.1    Block Cipher Mode
          Cipher Input Values
          Cipher Counter Alignment
          Lifetime of a Key
            10.2.2    Downstream Encryption
            10.2.3    Upstream Encryption
            10.2.4    Key Exchange and Switch-Over Scheme
          Message Format
          Key Exchange Protocol Using ONU-Generated Key
          Key Exchange Protocol Using OLT-Generated Key
        10.3    Summary
    11    Path Protection in EPON
        11.1    Unprotected Tree
        11.2    Protected Trunk
        11.3    Protected Branches
        11.4    Protected Trunk and Branches
        11.5    Protected Tree

Part IV:    EPON Performance

    12    Baseline Efficiency
        12.1    Encapsulation Overhead
        12.2    Scheduling Overhead
            12.2.1    Control Channel Overhead
            12.2.2    Guard-Band Overhead
            12.2.3    Discovery Overhead
            12.2.4    Frame Delineation Overhead
        12.3    FEC Overhead
        12.4    Summary
    13    Discovery Slot Allocation
        13.1    Pair-Wise Collision Probability
        13.2    Average Success Rate
        13.3    Efficiency of Discovery Slot size
        13.4    Optimal Discovery Slot Size
    14    EPON with Static Slot Assignment
        14.1    Introduction
        14.2    System Architecture
        14.3    Traffic Model
        14.4    Performance Analysis
            14.4.1    Average Packet Delay
            14.4.2    Average Queue Size
            14.4.3    Frame Loss
            14.4.4    Bandwidth Utilization
          Improving Utilization using Packet Scheduling
        14.5    Summary
    15    EPON with Dynamic Slot Assignment
        15.1    DBA Algorithm
            15.1.1    Maximum Transmission Window
            15.1.2    Components of Packet Delay
            15.1.3    IPACT Allocation Disciplines
        15.2    Results from Simulation Experiments
            15.2.1    Performance of Limited Service
        15.3    Summary
    16    Support for Differentiated Classes of Service
        16.1    Introduction
            16.1.1    Overview of IEEE 802.1D Support for COS
        16.2    System Architecture: Integrating Priority Queuing in EPON
            16.2.1    Traffic Modeling
        16.3    Packet Delay Analysis
            16.3.1    Light-Load Penalty
        16.4    Optimization Schemes
            16.4.1    Tandem Queuing
            16.4.2    CBR Credit
          Dynamics of Packet Preemption
            16.4.3    Bandwidth Utilization
        16.5    Summary
    17    Objectives of EPON Scheduling Algorithm
        17.1    A Formal Definition of Fairness
        17.2    Fair Schedulers
            17.2.1    Direct (Single-Level) Schedulers
            17.2.2    Hierarchical (Multi-Level) Schedulers
          Sibling-Fair vs. Cousin-Fair Schedulers
        17.3    Summary
    18    Cousin-Fair Hierarchical Scheduling in EPON
        18.1    Fair Queuing with Service Envelopes
            18.1.1    Phase 1 - Requesting Service
            18.1.2    Phase 2 - Granting Service
            18.1.3    Service Envelope Approximation Schemes
          Min-Error Approach
          Min-Points Approach
          Approximation Error
            18.1.4    FQSE Complexity
            18.1.5    Granting Schemes
        18.2    FQSE Adaptation for EPON
            18.2.1    Head-of-Line Blocking
            18.2.2    Bandwidth (Timeslot) Utilization
        18.3    FQSE Performance
            18.3.1    Fairness of FQSE
            18.3.2    Analysis of Cousin-Fairness
            18.3.3    Analysis of Fairness Bound
        18.4    Summary
    19    Conclusion
        19.1    Upgrading EPON
        19.2    Open Access

    Appendix A: Characteristics of Network Traffic
    Appendix B: Synthetic Traffic Generation


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